Monocyte conversion in patient cohorts

Monocytes are circulating leukocytes important in both innate and adaptive immunity. In humans, three different monocytes have been identified, based on their phenotypic expression of CD14 and CD16. These different subsets have been shown to exert different functions, where the non-classical monocyte is thought to contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and high numbers of these cells is associated with higher rates of cardiovascular events and death. We have identified a fourth subset in patients with diabetic nephropathy, the CD14-negative monocyte (CD14NM, see arrow). We are currently characterizing this monocyte subset with respect to phenotype, RNA-profile, functional properties and the effect of treatment on cell number. Furthermore, we monitored monocyte conversion upon different treatments of patients with diabetic nephropathy or chronic kidney disease, such as administration of Alemtuzumab or Belatacept versus Calcineurin inhibitors. This research may give more insight in the correlation between the conversion of circulating monocyte subtypes and vascular injury.